What is bootstrapping in CS

BOAT STRAPPING - CS 4

Overview. 1. Introduction 2. Hardware initialization2.1 Bootstrap program2.2 Boot process3. Initialization of the software 3.1 Starting Windows 2000 / NT 3.2 Starting Unix4. Summary 5. SourcesProseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg2 / 18


Initialization of the hardware (1). Bootstrap program. Stored in ROMTasks: Initialization of the hardwareLocalization of the kernelProseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg4 / 18


Initialization of the hardware (2). Two-stage technology. 1. Tiny bootstrap program (BIOS) stored in non-volatile memory (ROM). 2. Full bootstrap program stored on the hard drive.BIOS - Basic Input Output SystemProseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg5 / 18


Boot process (1). Execution of the BIOS. (1) Power On Self Test (POST) is started by the BIOS. Tests and initializes various hardware components, e.g. CPU, RAM, video controller. (2) Standard drives and hard drives are examined on boot sectors in a configurable order.Proseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg6 / 18


Boot process (2). Preliminary seminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system components BootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg7 / 18


Boot process (3). Execution of the BIOS (continued). (3) First sector on the hard disk is loaded into the main memory. Master Boot Record (MBR) includes partition tableProseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg8 / 18


Boot process (4). Execution of the BIOS (continued). (4) Determination of the active partition in the partition table. Manual selection by boot manager. Adjustable in the boot manager (e.g. Lilo, or Grub under Linux): Location of the boot loader (MBR; bootsector of a partition ; Diskette); Available and standard sections; Activation of bootloader partition.Proseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg9 / 18


Boot process.Proseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg10 / 18


Boot process (5). Execution of the BIOS (continued). (5) First sector (boot record) of the selected partition is loaded into the RAM. (6) The operating system kernel file is searched for, loaded into the RAM and executed. NTldr.exe under Windows NT / 2000; / unix under Linux.Proseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg11 / 18


Start Windows NT / 2000. (1) NTLDR.EXE: carry out further initialization, read boot.ini (all versions of hal.dll & ntoskrnl.exe) Operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg12 / 18


Start Windows NT / 2000. (2) NTOSKRNL.EXE: further initialization; start of the first process smss.exe; crss.exe is started by smss.exe; start of the logon service winlogon.exe; start of the authentication manager lsas.exe; start of services.exe - father of all Services.Proseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg13 / 18


Starting UNIX (1). Start code of the kernel: (in assembler) further initialization; e.g. Prepare the stack, calculate the size of the working memory.Call the main functionMain function: (in C) set up buffers for messages; auto-configuration of the system; dynamic loading of drivers


Starting UNIX (2). Process "0" is created: carries out further initializations; starts process "1" - init process and process "2" - page daemon INIT process: single-user mode; multi-user mode Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system components BootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg15 / 18


Start UNIX (3). Multi-user mode: Read in list of terminals to be activated; start child process for everyone; getty outputs "login:" on the screen; start bin / shProseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system components BootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg16 / 18th


Summary.Multi-stage bootstraploaderSmall part in the BIOS; full program on the diskMaster Boot RecordPartition tableLoading the operating systemProseminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg17 / 18


Sources. [1] "Operating System Concepts" Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne. Sixth Edition, 2002. [2] "Modern Operating Systems" Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 2nd edition, Pearson Study. 2002. [3] "Windows NT 4.x Workstation" J├╝rgen Ortmann. 1997. [4] "UNIX Basics" Helmut Herold.4. Revised edition, 1999. Preparatory seminar: Topic: Lecturer: Concepts of operating system componentsBootstrappingKrasovytskyy Oleg18 / 18


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Magazine: BOAT STRAPPING - CS 4