What are 10 natural resources

Conservation and management of natural resources (SDGs 2, 3, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15)

Natural resources include all environmental media (water, soil, air) and living organisms (biological diversity), non-renewable raw materials (such as rocks, minerals, ores, fossil fuels) and renewable raw materials (such as wood, plants, food), as well flowing resources (wind, tidal, solar energy).

Natural resources, especially in high quality, are not readily available. Their use has an impact on the environment. It is therefore important to maintain prosperity and economic growth while at the same time preserving the state of the environment and the opportunities for future generations.

Raw materials (SDGs 8, 12, 15)

Raw materials are a significant economic factor in the manufacturing industry. Bavaria is particularly dependent on imports for the metallic raw materials that are important for the high-tech industrial sectors. But Bavaria also has a large number of domestic raw materials that are indispensable for industry and society: In addition to biomass, these are especially mineral raw materials.

For a secure use of raw materials, it is therefore important to ensure sustainable use and resource-efficient economic methods, regardless of their current availability. A fair and adequate balance must also be found between the interests of a secure supply of raw materials and the minimization of environmental pollution. For a sustainable Bavarian raw material economy it is therefore important to minimize raw material consumption as much as possible and to strengthen domestic raw material security. At the same time, more local renewable or other raw materials should be used.


For the further development of Bavaria's leading role in the sustainable use of resources, the following goals are being pursued:

  • Extensive decoupling of raw material consumption from economic development
  • A continuous increase in total raw material productivity (raw material productivity plus biotic raw materials and the total weight of imported semi-finished and finished products) by 2030 based on the national sustainability strategy
  • Strengthening domestic raw material security and sustainable raw material extraction as well as exploration of domestic deposits
  • Further development of the circular economy and strengthening the use of secondary raw materials in products
  • Strengthening reliable and affordable access to raw materials while maintaining economic, ecological and social standards
  • Increasing use of renewable raw materials from sustainable agriculture and forestry in place of fossil and mineral raw materials (bioeconomy) subject to food security


  • Establishment of the Bavarian Resource Efficiency Center (REZ) and implementation of various advisory and networking offers with the Bavarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and regional partners
  • Working bodies in cooperation with business, associations and universities (working forum "Sustainable Resource Use and Integrated Product Policy (IPP)" within the framework of the Bavarian Environmental Pact, Interministerial Working Group "Raw Material Strategy"
  • Strengthening resource and raw material research, e.g. expansion of the Fraunhofer project group for recyclable material cycles and resource strategy IWKS, establishment of the Bavarian Competence Center for Geogenic Raw Materials (BKGR) by Bavarian universities, implementation of a project network for more resource efficiency in the Bavarian economy and in craft and implementation of a country study on the resource efficiency potentials through the digital transformation in industry
  • Strengthening domestic raw material extraction, e.g. through Bavarian raw material exploration programs in advance of the economy
  • Actions to strengthen education and awareness of resource conservation
  • Further development of the Bavarian resource strategy "Raw material transition in Bavaria"
  • Further development of the Bavarian bioeconomy strategy
  • Creation of networks by the state government and the federal government to improve access to raw material producers and deposits abroad

Soil (SDGs 11, 15)

Soils fulfill many functions, some of which are permanently restricted or destroyed by the input of substances, erosion, compaction and sealing as well as the effects of climate change. Damaged and overbuilt soils are only available to agriculture and forestry to a limited extent for sustainable food and raw material production, lead to the loss of Bavarian cultural and recreational landscapes and can endanger groundwater and health. Sealed floors store and filter hardly any water, have a negative impact on the local climate and hardly bind fine dust.
With a view to the future, it is therefore important to significantly reduce land consumption and avoid use-related damage to the soil, but also to deal with the consequences of previous industrial or military land use (contaminated sites). In addition to aftercare, Bavarian soil protection primarily includes precautionary measures.


  • Increased soil protection to maintain the natural soil functions and to reduce the effects of climate change
  • In the long term, significant reduction in land use up to a land recycling management without further land use
  • Clarification of suspected contaminated sites by 2030 in as many suspected sites as possible and promotion of contaminated site remediation and land recycling
  • Continuation of the company for the remediation of contaminated sites in Bavaria mbH (GAB)
  • Determination and provision of geoscientific fundamentals nationwide for all of Bavaria
  • Strengthening "soil awareness"


  • Continuation of the network "Alliance to save space"
  • Diverse support for municipalities in space management
  • Focus on intermunicipal cooperation and mobilization of internal development potential
  • Consistent implementation of the legal framework in BauGB and LEP with the aim of saving space
  • Further development of good professional practice in agriculture to maintain healthy and productive soils
  • Development of working aids for careful handling of the soil, especially for linear and other construction projects
  • Strengthening the geological service in Bavaria in order to be able to determine and provide well-founded geoscientific principles for the whole of Bavaria in good time
  • Expansion of existing ground monitoring systems to include climate-relevant parameters
  • Reduction of soil degradation (erosion, compaction, humus shrinkage) through adapted management measures
  • Establishment of soil and climate-friendly usage options for bogs and humus-rich soils
  • Further expansion of the “soil: constantly” initiative for soil and water protection
  • Substantially improve and expand general scientific education and especially geoscientific education as a permanent topic in schools and educational institutions

Water (SDGs 11, 15)

Water is an elementary component of the natural balance and a vital resource for humans, animals and plants.
For current and future generations, it is therefore important to use water responsibly and in a sustainable manner to protect consistently at a high level. This is all the more important as climate change will also affect the availability of water resources (such as groundwater recharge). At the same time, at higher temperatures, an increasing demand for water as well as growing and competing usage demands can be expected. The material pollution of bodies of water and groundwater must be limited to a tolerable level. In particular, the good quality of Bavarian drinking water must be maintained over the long term. At the same time, it is important to protect the population from the dangers of water, especially from floods.

Climate change creates additional challenges for flood protection and low water management. With the 2020plus action program, Bavaria has launched an integral flood protection strategy consisting of flood retention, technical flood protection and flood prevention.

In municipal services of general interest, fluctuating connection and user numbers and changing population structures will lead to upheavals that will affect the economic operation and efficiency of water supply and wastewater disposal facilities.


  • Water development, water and groundwater protection
    • Achieve the good ecological and chemical status of all surface waters or the good ecological potential for all significantly changed surface waters as well as the good quantitative and chemical status of all groundwater bodies within the meaning of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) by 2027
    • Preserve natural and clean drinking water in sufficient quantities throughout Bavaria on the basis of preventive groundwater protection
    • Safeguard the state-of-the-art technology that has been achieved across the board in wastewater disposal in Bavaria in the long term and, if necessary, improve the cleaning standard in justified cases
    • Reversal of possibly increasing pollutant trends in the groundwater
    • Networking of river and floodplain
  • Water use
    • Expansion of low water management, safeguarding the water balance and security of the public water supply as well as sustainable possibilities for agricultural irrigation
    • Increase in electricity generation from hydropower, taking into account the interests of water management, water ecology and nature conservation
  • Flood protection
    • Avoidance and limitation of flood risks and damage


  • Expansion of integrated water resource management
  • Implementation of the programs of measures according to the WFD
  • Implementation of the flood risk management guideline (HWRMRL) in connection with the Bavarian flood protection action program
  • Pursuing the goals of the WFD and flood protection also in connection with projects of integrated rural development (ILE) and land consolidation
  • Extension of the “Groundwater Protection Campaign” in Lower Franconia and Upper Franconia to other government districts
  • Water supply balance 2025 - Survey and evaluation of public water supply for sustainable securing of the drinking water supply
  • Recording, demarcation and evaluation of catchment areas for drinking water production as an area backdrop for planning measures, risk analyzes, vulnerability evaluations and areas of action
  • Development of solution strategies for fluctuating connection and user numbers for water supply and wastewater disposal (Demography Guideline Bavaria)
  • Support in the conservation and near-natural management of the multifunctional mountain forests and the restoration of protective forests
  • Continuation of the Bavarian floodplain program to bundle water management and nature conservation issues and as a central communication platform
  • Further expansion of the “soil: constantly” initiative and implementation of agri-environmental programs for the benefit of soil and water protection
  • Implementation of the water pact for cooperative water protection with agriculture and doubling of water advisors

Biodiversity (SDGs 12, 15)

The diversity of animal and plant species, their genetic diversity and the diversity of habitats ensure the stability of ecosystems and the ability to adapt to changed environmental conditions. The preservation of biological diversity is therefore recognized worldwide as an important task and has constitutional status in Bavaria. The scenic beauty of Bavaria, its attraction for tourists and the quality of life of its citizens are based on its diversity of valuable cultural landscapes with a multitude of animal and plant species. Biodiversity, nature and landscape therefore also have considerable economic value.

It is therefore important to preserve Bavaria's biological resources for future generations and to use them sustainably.

In view of the increasing loss of biological diversity in Bavaria, too, the state government adopted a Bavarian biodiversity strategy in April 2008.


  • Securing the diversity of species and varieties as well as the endangered cultivars and livestock breeds: Improving the endangerment situation of more than 50% of the Red List species by at least one level by 2030
  • Evaluation of the Red List
  • Preservation and, if necessary, improvement of the state of preservation of the types of responsibility
  • Preservation and restoration of the diversity of habitats
  • Improvement of ecological permeability (biotope network)
  • Mediation and deepening of knowledge about native habitats, species and varieties


  • Biodiversity Program Bavaria 2030: Implementation measures for all target areas of the biodiversity strategy, taking into account current challenges such as climate change
  • Promotion of nature conservation and landscape management, e.g. through BayernNetzNatur projects, species aid programs, care and development of protected areas and environmental education
  • Land provision by land management in rural development projects
  • Expansion of the contractual nature conservation aimed at biodiversity from currently 2.5% to 6% of the agricultural area by 2030. This way, farmers are fairly rewarded for the particularly nature-friendly and costly management of the existing, ecologically particularly valuable meadows, pastures, ponds and fields in Bavaria.
  • Increase in the number of private forest owners and municipalities participating in the forest contract nature conservation program
  • Ensuring professional biotope maintenance via a comprehensive network of landscape maintenance associations in close collaboration between nature conservation, agriculture and municipalities; Founding initiative of the state government in the areas in which no landscape conservation associations have yet developed
  • Implementation of the Natura 2000 management plans preferably through voluntary measures (contractual nature conservation, landscape management) in dialogue with the land users, including creating and securing the necessary structures (e.g. landscape management associations, area managers)
  • Continuation and initiation of BayernNetzNatur projects as essential components of a state-wide biotope network and to complement the Natura 2000 network
  • Implementation and further development of the state program BioRegio 2020 to expand organic farming in Bavaria
  • Regular updates of the species and biotope protection program ABSP (according to Art. 19 BayNatSchG), the nature conservation map and the Red Lists (if possible every 10 years)
  • Near-natural and sustainable forestry with an integrative approach "Sustainably protect and use basically the whole area"
  • Undisturbed development of nature according to its own laws and natural dynamics on suitable areas, e.g. through an open-ended examination of a third national park
  • Wildlife advice
  • Use of compensation measures, among other things, to improve the biotope network in accordance with the specifications of the Bavarian Compensation Ordinance (BayKompV)