Was Chuck Yeager ever stationed in Korea

In "History" you will learn amazing highlights from the fascinating history of aviation.

 

Did you know...

... that Otto Lilienthal was the first series manufacturer for aircraft? Admittedly, his "normal sailing apparatus" was not yet comparable with today's aircraft, but in 1894 this simple glider made of willow wood and waxed cotton offered the first opportunity to soar into the air like a bird. With a wingspan of 6.70 m and a weight of 20 kg, Lilienthal achieved distances of 250 m from his 15-meter-high "Fliegeberg" in Lichtenfelde near Berlin. A sales advertisement with a picture of Lilienthal in flight from 1895 then praised the glider for 500 marks. Quote: The machine factory of O. Lilienthal - Berlin S. Köpenickerstrasse 113 manufactures gliders for practicing aerobatics. At least 9 copies were sold. On August 9, 1896, Lilienthal fell from a height of 15 meters with a normal sailing apparatus, and the next day he succumbed to his injuries. In 2016, the DLR Institute for Flow Research in Göttingen carried out investigations into the cause of the accident and came to the conclusion that the previous assumption that the sailing apparatus was unstable was probably wrong. In fact, Lilienthal's glider was probably caught by a thermal detachment (called "solar squall" at the time), which resulted in an excessive flight condition with a subsequent stall. Lilienthal did not succeed in preventing the subsequent spin. The great aviation pioneer is likely to have fallen victim to the first spin accident in aviation history.

Lilienthal normal sailing apparatus in the German Museum Munich / Flugwerft Schleißheim

Did you know...

... that the single-seat HF-24 Marut fighter-bomber from the Indian manufacturer HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limites) was developed under the direction of none other than the famous German designer Kurt Tank? After the Second World War, Kurt Tank was prohibited from practicing his profession as an aircraft designer in Germany. So he first emigrated to Argentina in 1947, where he designed aircraft and other armaments projects on behalf of the Peron government until his fall in 1955. In 1956 Tank emigrated to India and in 1959 became chief designer at Hindustan Aircraft (later HAL), where he developed the HF-24 Marut, a modern fighter-bomber that was supposed to reach Mach 2. Due to insufficient engine power, these speeds were never reached, but 129 series aircraft were built by 1977, including were also used in the 1971 Bangladesh war. One of the few remaining HF-15 Marut (which translates as "wind spirit") is exhibited today as a loan at the Wernigerode Aircraft Museum.

Did you know...

... that during the Second World War the US Air Force also used foreign aircraft types?

It is generally known that an enormous number of military aircraft were built in the USA during the Second World War (over 200,000 machines!) Of course, the airborne units of the American armed forces could be fully equipped with these aircraft. Also widely known is the fact that the United States at that time also supplied a large number of military aircraft from its own production to its former allies. For example, the Soviet Union received around 15,000 machines from the United States.

With numbers like this, it is quite surprising that the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) also commissioned a - albeit comparatively small - number of non-American aircraft types during World War II. For example, USAAF used British Supermarine Spitfire Mk V fighter jets in Operation Torch in November 1942 in North Africa. And the 14th Photographic Squadron of the USAAF 8th Air Force stationed in England even used Spitfire PR Mk XI photo reconnaissance aircraft for long-range reconnaissance missions over mainland Europe for a relatively long period of time (November 1943 to April 1945). The USAAF also used some of the famous twin-engined British De Havilland Mosquito as reconnaissance aircraft and weather observation aircraft. Another British aircraft type in service with the American Air Force was the Bristol Beaufighter, a small number of which were used by the USAAF as night fighters from 1943 onwards.

But the foreign aircraft types used by the USAAF in World War II were not all exclusively British. With the single-engine light multipurpose transport aircraft Noorduyn Norseman, an aircraft type from Canada was also in service with the United States Army Air Force. From 1942 until the end of the war, over 740 Noorduyn Norseman were produced for the American Air Force.

Our photos show (from top to bottom): A Supermarine Spitfire Mk V, a Supermarine Spitfire PR Mk XI, two photos of a De Havilland Mosquito and a Noorduyn Norseman, all with USAAF badges. The photos were taken at the United States Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio.

Did you know...

... that the Yakovlev Yak-40, which was developed and built in the former Soviet Union, is the smallest three-engine airliner in the world?

At the beginning of the 1960s, the Soviet Union was looking for a successor to the twin-engine propeller aircraft of the Lisunov Li-2 type (a licensed construction of the famous American Douglas DC-3), which at that time were still in use in large numbers as passenger planes. Yakovlev developed the short-haul airliner Yak-40, which is usually equipped with seats for 27 (32 in narrow seating) passengers. The equipment of the Yak-40 with three jet engines is very unusual for such a small airliner. Although this increases the power reserves of the machine for take-offs from unpaved airfields with a grass runway, it also ensures very high fuel consumption. As already mentioned, the Yak-40 is still the smallest three-jet commercial aircraft in the world today (2011), as all other aircraft manufacturers only equip commercial aircraft of this size with two engines.

The first prototype of the Yak-40 made its maiden flight in 1966 and from 1968 the series machines came into regular service with Aeroflot. More than 1,000 Yak-40s had been built by the time production was discontinued in 1976. In addition to the Soviet Union, aircraft of this type were also used in other countries in what was then the Eastern Bloc. A few Yak-40s were even exported to the West, where they could not be operated economically due to the high fuel consumption in scheduled air traffic.

Our photos show (from top to bottom) a Yakovlev Yak-40 in the static display of the International Aviation Exhibition 1992 in Berlin-Schönefeld, as well as a Yak-40 of the Lithuanian airline "Air Lietuva" (Air Lithuania) 1999 at the Cologne / Bonn airport.

Did you know...

... that Messerschmitt, a company that has become world-famous as an aircraft manufacturer, also built a road vehicle for a few years?

In the post-war period, the German designer Fritz Fend developed a small single-seater road vehicle, the "Fend Flitzer". However, he was unable to produce the vehicle in large series himself and finally turned to Messerschmitt, which had free capacities in the former manufacturing plants due to the aircraft construction ban that was temporarily in force in Germany after the Second World War. Willy Messerschmitt finally enabled Fritz Fend to build vehicles in the former Messerschmitt aircraft factory in Regensburg. A three-wheeled small vehicle with two seats lying one behind the other, the "Messerschmitt Kabinenroller", was manufactured there, which was further developed from the single-seater Fend Flitzer. Production started in 1953.

In 1957 the Messerschmitt company withdrew from vehicle construction. The production of the cabin scooter was continued. Fritz Fend founded the company "Fahrzeug und Maschinenbau Regensburg GmbH" ("FMR" for short) with another entrepreneur and took over the production facilities in Regensburg. Over the next few years, however, the demand for this miniature vehicle fell, so that production of the cabin scooter was discontinued in 1964. Of all the variants of the Messerschmitt and FMR cabin scooters, a total of around 67,000 pieces have been built, including around 1,000 copies of a four-wheeled version.

The Messerschmitt cabin scooters enjoyed considerable popularity in Germany in the mid-fifties and the beginning of the sixties, as they represented an affordable compromise for the German citizens' desire for mobility during the economic boom at that time: It was the ideal vehicle for people who on the one hand could not yet afford a "real" car and on the other hand a motorcycle was too small and uncomfortable for them.

Our photos show a Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter plane, which was manufactured in large numbers by Messerschmitt in Regensburg during the Second World War, as well as photos of two Messerschmitt cabin scooters. To get in and out of the vehicle, the canopy of the vehicle must be folded up to the right - similar to the cockpit canopy of a Bf 109.

60 years ago: The Comet's maiden flight

On July 27, 1949, a new era in air traffic began - the de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first passenger aircraft with jet engines to make its maiden flight in England.

It is not always easy to be the first of a new era. In the following years there was a series of tragic crashes with numerous fatalities, which the designers could not explain. At the end of the forties there were already several types of military with jet engines, but the Comet was constructed similarly to the propeller aircraft from those days. Due to the much higher cruising speed and the higher service ceiling, however, much stronger forces acted on the cell, which ultimately led to the crashes.

When the Comet 4, which was provided with numerous changes, was put into service, the American Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 models as well as the French Sud Aviation Caravelle also flew. Even if the latter were far more commercially successful than the Comet, they still deserve an important place in the history of civil aviation.

You don't even have to travel to Great Britain to see one of the historic planes - the Hermeskeil flight exhibition also has a copy of this world's first passenger jet. With a bit of luck, you can also experience the Comet live: In Bruntingthorpe, the UK http://www.bruntingthorpe.com/aircraft-museum.htm, a Comet 4 is kept in a clear-to-fly state and from time to time rolls over the track very quickly. If you are really active, you can admire the Nimrod reconnaissance fleet of the British Royal Navy, which is based on the Comet 4, at an airshow from time to time. (Stefan Schmoll)

de Havilland Comet in the Hermeskeil air show

Did you know...

...that Also, manned target display aircraft have ever been used that did not drag a target, but that were shot directly during practice shooting?

The best-known type of practice shooting with guns at air targets is the bombardment of air sacs, which are pulled along a long rope by a target display and tow plane. Towards the end of the Second World War, the American air forces also used manned target display aircraft that did not pull any towed targets, but actually were the targets themselves that were fired at for training purposes.

These were fighter aircraft of the type Bell P-63 Kingcobra with the new designation "RP-63" that had been specially converted for this purpose. In these RP-63 Kingcobras, the on-board weapons had been removed and the aircraft had been given about 680 kilograms of duralumin armor to protect them from the training projectiles. A special machine gun practice ammunition was used for the practice shooting of these target display aircraft flown by a pilot seated in the cockpit, the projectiles of which burst on impact with the RP-63 machines without causing major damage. When the practice ammunition hit the aircraft, colored lights flashed on the machine, reminiscent of the "win" flashing lights on a pinball machine. This led to the fact that the slightly more than 300 Kingcobras equipped for RP-63 target display aircraft were given the nickname "Pinball", based on the English name for pinball machines.

The Bell P-63 E Kingcobra machine that can be seen in our photos is in the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton / Ohio. This aircraft is actually not one of the machines that have been converted to RP-63 target display aircraft, but has been given the orange paint and markings of such a "pinball" machine for exhibition purposes. (HS)

Did you know...

...that Has a twin-engine airliner ever been produced in which the two engines were mounted on pylons above the wings?

In jet-powered commercial aircraft, it is normally the case that the engines are attached under the wings, as is the case with the Boeing 737 or Airbus A 320 machines, which are built in large numbers, for example. The engines of a commercial aircraft are also all located at the rear normal, as for example with the Canadair regional jet or the machines of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series. The combination of two engines under the wings and one engine at the stern has also been used in large numbers of jet jets (McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed TriStar).

In the sixties the VFW (= United Flugtechnische Werke) in Germany developed the VFW 614, a twin-jet airliner for up to 44 passengers with the two jet engines above the wings. With this unusual engine arrangement, foreign objects such as sand and stones should be prevented from getting into the engines when using unpaved runways. This equipment should make the VFW 614 interesting for sale in third world countries, where the runways are often in poor condition and especially in remote regions with such foreign objects, which are especially attached from a low position under the wings Engines can be sucked in, must be reckoned with.

The first flight of a VFW 614 took place in 1971. The VFW 614 was a very good aircraft, but only a small number of customers ordered it, so that the machine was unfortunately not an economic success. Production was therefore ended in 1977 after only around 20 machines had been completed. Aircraft of the type VFW 614 were used by three civil airlines: the Danish Cimber Air, as well as the French airlines Air Alsace and Touraine Air Transport (TAT). In addition, three machines of the type VFW 614 were in service for a period of 21 years (1977 to 1998) at the German Air Force's flight readiness BMVg.

Our photos show the only VFW 614 that is still actively flown today (as of 2008). The machine is used by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) as an "ATTAS" research aircraft (ATTAS = Advanced Technologies Testing Aircraft System). The photos were taken during the International Aviation Exhibition ILA 2008 at Berlin-Schönefeld Airport. (HS)

Did you know...

... that the General Dynamics F-111 fighter aircraft are equipped with a special rescue system for the two-man crew?

While two-seater fighter jets are usually equipped with an individual ejection seat for each crew member on board, the entire cockpit of the F-111 (nicknamed "Aardvark") is designed as an escape capsule ("Crew Escape Module").

In the F-111, the pilot and the weapons system officer sit side by side. In an emergency, either of them can trigger the rescue system. The entire cockpit with the two crew members on board is then shot up from the hull of the machine with powerful rockets and then floats safely to the ground on the parachute. To further cushion the impact on the ground, the Crew Escape Module has inflatable underfloor air cushions. In the case of a rescue committee over the sea, the Crew Escape Module is kept afloat with inflatable floating cushions after landing and serves as a life raft. The Crew Escape Module can be used not only during flight, but also at zero altitude and zero speed (ie under "zero-zero" conditions).

Our photos show General Dynamics F-111 fighter aircraft of the Royal Australian Air Force, as well as an F-111 Crew Escape Module, which was deployed in the U.S. Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio. It was used on October 19, 1967 as the first such escape capsule in a real emergency with an F-111. The escape capsule was triggered at a height of around 8,500 meters and both occupants survived the parachute landing in the Crew Escape Module unharmed! (HS)

Did you know...

... that in the Vietnam conflict the Lockheed Super Constellation was also used as a flying radio station? Since the early 1950s, the Constellation was used under the designation WV-2 by the US NAVY and as the RC-121C by the US Air Force for coastal surveillance. These areas of application were expanded during the Vietnam War, at times 25 different versions of the machines packed with more than six tons of electronics were in use. In 1962 the EC-121 appeared for the first time with the rotating radome, which is still characteristic of the "AWACS" aircraft today. However, its use as a flying broadcast station is likely to be one of the most unusual uses. In this way, the TV and radio programs of the American soldier channel AFN (American Forces Network) could be reliably broadcast undisturbed by hostile influences - from the Super Constellation, which is circling high above Vietnam. (GS)

Did you know...

... which impressive military and civil aviation achievements made the German aviation pioneer Gunther Plüschow famous first in the First World War and then later at the end of the twenties? See our >>> Special Gunther Plüschow

Did you know...

... that the New Zealand aviation pioneer George Bruce Bolt first used airplanes to take aerial photographs? Born in Dunedin (NZ) in 1893, George Bolt founded the Canterbury Aero Club in 1910, where he built gliders with other enthusiasts. In 1912 he used these early gliders for his first aerial photography. In the following years, George Bolt made several flying achievements such as a long-haul flight from Auckland to Wellington in 5:06 hours (1918) and an altitude record (1919). In the same year he was New Zealand's first mail plane. George Bolt remained associated with aviation throughout his life as a pilot with the RAF and RNZAF in World War II. He died in 1963.

Did you know...

...that the Airbus A340-600 is one of the longest airliners in the world with a length of 75.30 m? The cabin has a usable length of almost 61 meters. In the passenger version there is space for 380 in the three-class configuration, and there is even room for up to 419 people in the two-class seating. The maximum take-off weight of this superlative passenger jet is 380 t. By February 2007, 74 A340-600s had been delivered and 121 of this type had been ordered to date.

Did you know...

... that during the Second World War a fighter plane was used on the British side that did not have any forward-pointing weapons? >>> Special Boulton Paul Defiant



Did you know...

... that with the famous Berlin Airlift 1948-1949 Short Sunderland flying boats were also used. The Havel and Wannsee served as landing areas. The large, four-engine machines transported, among other things. Sacks of table salt to supply the trapped Berlin population with the important mineral. The Sunderland were particularly suitable for these goods, as the salt did not cause any corrosion in the seawater-resistant flying boat, unlike land planes.

Short Sunderland

After the 50 years of existence of `Lufthansa´, which still exists today We shouldn't forget January 6, 1926. On this day the founding meeting of the national unified airline, the "Deutsche Luft Hansa AG" took place. The `Junkers Luftverkehr AG´ and the` Deutsche Aero Lloyd´ went into the new company. The famous symbol - the aspiring black crane - was taken over by the new company from the "Deutsche Luft-Reederei" which was merged into "Aero Lloyd". The colors blue and yellow were the corporate colors of Junkers Luftverkehr and the large shipping companies Hapag and Norddeutscher Lloyd. After a special flight service took place on the occasion of the Leipzig Trade Fair from February 28 to March 4, the new company's official scheduled service began on April 6, 1926. In addition to the employees, Deutsche Lufthansa naturally also took over the fleets of its predecessor companies. And so the new life under the crane began for 165 aircraft of 19 different types. The most important aircraft type was the famous Junkers F13 with 50 machines. But also Dornier Wal flying boats, Fokker F II and demilitarized double-deckers from Rumpler, AEG or LVG determined the early years of the company.
Did you know...

...that the Gö 3 "Minimoa" was the first performance glider in the world to be mass-produced? In the 20s and 30s, gliding experienced an incredibly rapid development. Within a few years, fabric-covered broomstick constructions, which were just enough for a gliding flight of a few seconds, became the high-performance gliders with which cross-country flights over hundreds of kilometers and world records in continuous flight of more than 55 hours were flown. As Martin Schempp after his
Returning from the USA In 1935 with Wolf Hirth's support in Göppingen he founded his company Sportflugzeugbau Schempp (from 1938 Schempp-Hirth), after the Gö 1 "Wolf" and the two-seater Gö 2, the record airplane "Moazagotl" became a one-off remained, derived from the "Minimoa" (= miniature moazagotl) reduced in span by 3 m. All four were designs by Wolf Hirth, who received valuable advice from Dr. Friedrich Wenk had received. From July 1935 to August 1939, 110 pieces of this elegant middle decker with its characteristic gull wing were built in wood with a plywood-clad hull and fabric-covered surfaces. Today there are still three airworthy specimens. (G. Schmid / K. Kössler)

Gö 3 Minimoa

Did you know...

... that the aircraft types Bf 108, 109 and 110 in the Luftwaffe were only called "Me" like that and never until the end? There is not a single service or printing regulation such as aircraft manual, operating instructions, drill card, spare parts list, etc. up to and including the last version of the Bf 109, the K-14, which could come up with "Me". The reason for this can be found in an internal instruction of the then senior staff engineer Roluf Lucht from November 8, 1935, in which he requested all departments bound by instructions in his area (Technical Office of the RLM, LC II), "documents of the Bavarian aircraft works, the content of which has outdated designation Me instead of Bf, to be returned to the company as not accepted with a corresponding note ". As a justification for this measure, he cited the need to ensure a uniform treatment of the type designations of the aircraft types manufactured by this company. So it remained with Bf with the three mentioned models, even after the BFW had been converted into Messerschmitt AG in 1938. The designation "Me" only became binding for all samples developed after this point in time. The first was the Me 210. (Karl Kössler)

Did you know...

... that the so-called RLM sample or type list does not come from this office at all, but has merely been taken over and continued by him? In order to put an end to the confusion of the model designations of the aircraft that had prevailed at the individual companies, talks had already taken place in 1929/30, in which the Army Weapons Office in the Reichswehr Ministry was the driving force. With the participation of a number of other institutions, but also the aviation industry, an agreement was reached to replace the names freely chosen by the companies with now uniformly defined names based on the model of the company abbreviations Do and Ro, which were previously only used by Dornier and Rohrbach. All companies had to designate newly developed patterns in the future with the first two letters of their company name, to which there was now an at least two-digit number assigned by a central office, which was always assigned only once. For the company abbreviation, the first letter had to be capitalized, but the second, regardless of the origin, always had to be written in lowercase. For example, the company name at Focke-Wulf Fw was that of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke Bf. The lowest number series starting with 10 was assigned to the Dornier company. It went to 26. The first aircraft types designated according to the new procedure were, for example, the Ar 64, Do 10, Fw 44, He 42, Ju 52 and Kl 31, all aircraft that were already in operation up to 3 years before the creation of the RLM ( May 1933) were created and flown. (see also Jet & Prop 1/03). (Karl Kössler)

Did you know...

... that the Etrich "Taube", one of the first successful powered aircraft, owes its wing shape to the seeds of a plant? Zanonia Alsomitra Macrocarpa is the Latin name of a tropical cucurbit native to Southeast Asia, which climbs liana-like on trees up to a height of 30 meters. The seeds of this plant resemble a "flying wing" with a wingspan of approx. 15 cm and have a glide ratio of approx. 1:10. The seeds manage to sail up to 300 meters when there is no wind. The remarkably stable flight behavior of these seeds also caught the eye of Igo Etrich (1879-1967) and he successfully incorporated this discovery into the wing design of his famous "pigeon". (G. Schmid)

Did you know...

...that the first manned vertical launch rocket in Germany took place? Lothar Sieber, actually the pilot of a combat zone transporter Arado 232, was transferred to the Bachem company in Waldsee in December 1944 as a flyer, where he was supposed to drive the testing of the new Ba 349 "Natter" missile fighter. With the fantastic rate of climb of 11,300 m / min, the "Natter" should be used as an interceptor against incoming bombers. On March 1, 1945, the only manned launch of an "adder" took place and at the same time the world's first manned vertical rocket launch. After a flight time of only 55 seconds, at which a speed of over 1000 km / h was reached, the adder fell steeply to the ground. Lothar Sieber lost his life here. He went down in history as one of the first space pioneers and the first victim of manned space travel. Forty machines of the "Natter" had been built by the end of the war, but they were no longer used. (Torsten Mörke)

Did you know...

...how advanced Aircraft engines were already in 1942? The Daimler Benz DB 605 installed in the Messerschmitt Bf 109, among others, serves as an example. The Daimler Benz company was created in 1926 through the merger of the Daimler and Benz companies. Both companies already gained a lot of experience in the construction of aircraft engines during the First World War, so it is hardly surprising that the cooperation resulted in very advanced engines. The DB 605 is a further development of the DB 601 engine. It is a V12 in-line engine with hanging cylinders and increased displacement from 33.9 to 37.5 liters. While the A version still produced 1475 hp, this value was finally increased to 2000 hp. These performances were already at just 2,800 rpm. and a total weight of not quite 800 KG (including lubricant and cooling water). This was made possible by gasoline direct injection and a single-stage turbocharger, technologies that are still up-to-date today. Engines of this series are often exhibited in aircraft museums. Our tip: The Aviation Museum Laatzen / Hanover. There you can follow the development from DB 601 to DB 605 on original pieces. A DB 603 is also available, but only from a break in salvage. (Torsten Mörke)

Daimler Benz

DB 605

Did you know...

...that the German bomber Arado Ar 234 was the first four-engine airplane in the world? The prototype Ar 234 V-8, still equipped with landing skids, with the GK + IY registration number, took off on February 4, 1944 with test pilot Ubbo Janssen at the controls from Alt-Lönnewitz airfield for its first flight. The forerunner of the later C-series, driven by four BMW 003 turbines, required a three-wheeled launch vehicle to roll on the ground, which was triggered immediately after the machine was lifted off and remained on the ground. The production aircraft of the C-series then had a retractable landing gear (photo). (GS)

Did you know...

...that one of the most successful engines that General Electric J-79 has been built over 17,000 times? Gerhard Neumann, of German origin, began developing this engine at General Electric as early as 1952. It was designed as a single-shaft high-pressure axial turbine with a 17-stage compressor, three-stage drive turbine and 10 combustion chambers. For the European market, the J-79 was built under license from 1970 in cooperation with the German company BMW Triebwerksbau (now MTU), the Belgian company Fabrique Nationale and the Italian company Fiat Aviazione. The J-79 was used for more than 30 years, including in famous aircraft such as the F-104 Starfighter, F-4 Phantom and the B-58 Hustler. (Torsten Mörke)

GE J-79



Did you know...

...that the proverbial term "08/15" dates from the time of the First World War? As early as 1908, the Spandau company began developing a new machine gun. This development continued until 1915, when the new rifle went into series production under the designation "08/15". With over 130,000 copies built, the rifle has quickly become the standard weapon. In the linguistic usage of the soldiers, the name of the rifle has become naturalized for all everyday and normal things. Even after the war, this phrase was stuck to. Almost all German aircraft from that time were equipped with the "08/15"! (Torsten Mörke)

08/15



Did you know...

that the British de Havilland Mosquito, one of the most outstanding aircraft of the Second World War, a wooden structure was? The Mosquito was designed as the successor to the obsolete Bristol Blenheim. After the Mosquito project was rejected by the British Air Ministry in 1938 because the wooden construction had long been considered obsolete, the project was taken up again in December 1939. The reason for this was the shortage of aluminum due to the war. The first Mosquito flew in November 1940 and after a short time the slim wooden machine with its two Rolls Royce Merlin engines demonstrated its enormous capabilities. As agile as a fighter, it dragged the bomb load of a medium-sized bomber, as a scout it flew quickly and out of reach for enemy fighters and equipped with radar, the fast machine was also used as a night fighter. By 1945, 7,781 of the "emergency solution" de Havilland Mosquito had been produced.

Did you know...

that on the afternoon of September 6th, 1976 the MiG-25 "Foxbat", one of the Soviets best kept secrets in the Cold War, "fell into the hands of the western powers as a gift" in the truest sense of the word? Viktor Belenko, an elite pilot in the Soviet Air Force, left Russian airspace in his top-secret MiG-25 and flew to Japan, where he landed at Hakodate City Commercial Airport in front of hundreds of amazed spectators on western territory. Its fuel supply after landing would have allowed a flight time of 30 seconds. The USA thus had the unique opportunity to study the most secret fighter aircraft in the East at the time. By 1975 the machine, which was first presented in Moscow in 1967, had flown 18 world records in various disciplines. With a top speed of 3,000 km / h and a summit altitude of more than 36,000 m, the machine designed as an interceptor and high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, among other things, a counterpart for the American SR-71 "Blackbird".

Did you know...

that the British Royal Air Force (RAF) in World War II more than 150 women as transfer pilots started? They were the first female pilots in the British military. From 1940 to 1945 the Air Transport Auxiliary Association (ATA) 309,011 aircraft Transferred by air from the factories to the RAF bases. 147 different types of aircraft were convicted by the pilots. Most of the aircraft were not equipped with instruments or weapons. Diana Barnato Walker (lower picture) flew 46 different types of bombers as a Class IV pilot from the Avro Tutor to Bristol Blenheim to Vickers Wellington. She also transferred 260 Spitfires (50 more than any other ATA pilot). The South African Jackie Moggridge got her pilot's license at the age of 16, her mother cheated of an older age. In 1940 she came to ATA (her flight instructor also supported the dizziness with age). By 1945 she had transferred 1,500 aircraft of 86 different types, 200 more than any other ATA pilot. The list of superlatives could be extended indefinitely. There is no doubt that the courageous women of the ATA were instrumental in the success of the Royal Air Force.

Did you know...

that during the Second World War a complete fighter was developed and built in Australia in just five months? This happened in 1942 when Australia was in danger of a Japanese invasion. The Royal Australian Air Force had very few fighter planes at that time and therefore needed a modern, powerful fighter very quickly in order to be able to counter the Japanese threat. That’s how the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC) within a few weeks on the drawing board CAC Boomerang designed. The design was accepted and the first prototype was built within 3 months. It had its maiden flight on May 29, 1942. In order to save time, many components of the trainer aircraft were removed from this "Panic Fighter" CAC Wirraway used. By 1945, 250 Boomerang aircraft had been built in various versions. Since the Royal Australian Air Force had in the meantime received American and British fighter planes, the Boomerang was rarely used in its actual role as a fighter aircraft in the theater of war, which leads to the curious fact that the Boomerang was considered the only fighter aircraft of the Second World War. which did not shoot down an enemy plane. But since the Boomerang was a well-designed and very robust aircraft with exceptionally good maneuverability, it was gladly and abundantly used in other combat tasks and proved itself in combat operations above all as a fighter-bomber, target marking aircraft and reconnaissance aircraft. Photo shows a Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation Boomerang in the Royal Australian Air Force Museum Point Cook (www.raafmuseum.com.au)

Did you know...

that the Tupolev Tu-114 the fastest turboprop aircraft the world is? When the Tu-114 was presented to the public in 1957, it was the largest airliner in the world with up to 220 seats. As a further development of the long-range bomber Tu-95 presented in 1955 with the NATO code name "Bear", the Tu-114 reached an average speed of 877.21 km / h on April 9, 1960 with a payload of 25 tons over a closed circuit of 5000 km . In the 1960s, 32 Tu-114s were the flagships of the AEROFLOT airline. The pictures show: Tu-95 "Bear" (above) and Tu-114 (below).

Did you know...

that American Airlines the largest airline in the world is? With 974 aircraft, the "AA" has more than three times as many machines as the German Lufthansa (303). American Airlines was created in 1934 from the merger of several small airlines around the Robertson Aircraft Corporation of Missouri, whose first scheduled flight was controlled on April 15, 1926 by none other than the famous Charles Lindbergh. The company, headquartered in Dallas / Fort Worth (Texas), carried no fewer than 84.7 million passengers on its route network comprising 40 countries with 163 cities (plus 139 US destinations of the regional airline subsidiary American Eagle). Every day the planes of the AA and the American Eagle take off on more than 4,500 flights. Over 10,000 pilots are in the service of the world's largest airline.

Did you know...

that the company Aerocar in the 50s with the development of a "flying cars" busy? The first prototype was completed in October 1949. The Aerocar I model received its air traffic license on December 13, 1956. A total of five copies of the Aerocar I model were built. This was followed by the further developed Model III, in which the wings and rear part of the fuselage were removed as a trailer behind the (car) cabin. The two-seater Model III completed its maiden flight in June 1969. Aerocar designer Taylor then worked on the Model IV, a four-seater variant of the Aerocar, which, however, did not reach the US aviation authority's approval process due to changed approval conditions and excessive weight.

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that the German Gustav Whitehead possibly already the first powered flight two years before the Wright brothers managed? Gustav Weißkopf, who came from Leutershausen in Franconia, emigrated to the USA, where he called himself "Gustave Whitehead". In Bridgeport, Connecticut, according to contemporary witnesses, he is said to have flown 800 meters with his self-built and self-controlled "Apparatus No. 21". In contrast to the Wright brothers' flight that followed two years later, however, there is no documentation about Weisskopf's flights. In order to create clarity, the "Flight History Research Association Gustav Weißkopf" in Leutershausen built the aircraft No. 21 true to the original. The aircraft was examined and tested with the support of EADS in Manching. Nevertheless, to this day it cannot be confirmed with absolute certainty that "Apparatus No. 21" actually flew. But the opposite could not be proven either and so it cannot be ruled out that the German Gustav Weißkopf could do the honor for the first powered flight. Pictures from top to bottom: Gustav Weißkopf - the engine he designed for his flying machine - the flying machine No. 21.

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that the French Louis Blériot flew over the English Channel on July 25, 1909? Two other competitors tried to win the prize offered by Lord Northcliffe, the owner of the Daily Mail. 1,000 pounds sterling beckoned the first person to fly over the English Channel in an airplane. In addition to Louis Blériot with his Blériot XI monoplane, Hubert Latham with his Antoinette monoplane and Charles, Duke of Lambert with his Wright-Wissant biplane on the French Channel coast near Les Baraques near Calais were waiting for suitable weather. Latham, who started first on the morning of July 19th, had to make an emergency landing halfway with engine failure. In the early morning of July 25th, Louis Blèriot set off without a compass on the 36.5 km stretch across the canal to Dover. After 37 minutes of flight time, he landed in a strong wind in the village of Northfall Meadow. When landing on a sloping meadow, the propeller broke and the landing gear was damaged. Blériot got away with minor injuries. Letham could not take off until two days later due to strong winds and had to ditch again with engine failure. The Duke of Lambert decided not to take office.

The Blériot XI. Above an original photo, below a replica

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that the legendary "Flying Tigers" were initially ridiculed and ridiculed as a "disinterested bunch"? In September 1941, the American Volunteer Group (A.V.G.) began training in Rangoon. Claire L. Chennault, a retired Air Corps major and an adviser to the Chinese Air Force since 1937, had the civil law contract with the A.V.G. prepared and in December 1941 the time had come. The "Flying Tigers", a motley troop of around 100 pilots and 200 ground personnel, who did not value correct service uniform, military manners and daily shaving, began to fend off the Japanese Air Force with Curtiss P-40B fighter planes Time permanent attacks on China and Burma flew. Seven months later, all doubters and scoffers were wrong. Although the "Flying Tigers" received neither supplies of pilots nor a satisfactory supply of spare parts for their machines, they ended their mission in July 1942 with 286 Japanese aircraft shot down among 12 of their own fallen or missing pilots. The "Flying Tigers" lived up to their trademark, the bared tiger teeth on the nose of their aircraft, and went down in the history books.

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that on November 20, 1980 for the first time a manned one Solar plane took off, flew and landed independently? Dr. Paul MacCready had already drawn attention to himself in the years before with his ultra-light muscle power planes "Gossamer Condor" and "Gossamer Albatros". Dr. So MacCready built with that "Solar Challenger" an airplane that, including the pilot Janice Brown, weighed only 133 kg. Nevertheless, it should be resilient with + 5 / -3 g. 1,628 solar cells provided the energy for the drive. On November 20th, 1980 the first flight took place in El Mirage (California). The first flight lasted 2 minutes and 50 seconds. A little later, in an 8 hour and 19 minute flight, an altitude of 4,358 m was reached. A "Solar Challenger" controlled by Stephen Ptacek crossed the English Channel in 5 hours and 25 minutes and reached heights of up to 3,657 m on July 7, 1981. In recent years NASA has built an unmanned, remote-controlled one with the "Solar Pathfinder" Research aircraft that can theoretically stay in the air for weeks, months and maybe years using solar energy. "Solar Pathfinder" is supposed to move at heights of over 80,000 ft, that is approx. 24,000 m, and also take on tasks that are currently still handled by satellites. The flights so far at altitudes of over 70,000 ft. Have been promising.



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that the U.S. NAVY in the 30's Airships as aircraft carriers used? These were the airships USS Akron and USS Macon. Just like the modern aircraft carriers of today, the airships should fly to the crisis area and offer the fighters a take-off and landing platform. Technically, this was solved by a "skyhook" mechanism, a catch hook that was mounted above the upper wing of the biplane aircraft. The pilot steered the aircraft with the hook into a suspension device and then the aircraft was pulled into its "hangar" in the belly of the airship. In some "carrier aircraft, the landing gear was even removed; it was ultimately superfluous for aircraft that were never supposed to land on an airfield. The era of airships as aircraft carriers, however, quickly came to an end. The" Akron "was lost in a storm in 1933 and the" Macon "crashed off the coast of California in 1935 in the Pacific Ocean. Noteworthy on the picture of the F-9 C fighter is the picture on the side of the fuselage, which suggests a comparison with trapeze artists. The picture in the middle shows an approach to the suspension device of the USS Macon , below is a picture of the USS Macon.

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that the Wright R-4360 the largest piston engine that was built into an airplane? It is a quadruple radial engine with 28 cylinders and a displacement of 4360 cubic inches, which corresponds to 71.44 liters! This huge engine produced an output of approx. 3,000 HP and was used in the prototype of the Martin AM "Mauler", an aircraft carrier-supported (torpedo) bomber, produced from January 1945, as well as in the FG-1 "Corsair". In the huge flying boat "Spruce Goose" from Howard Hughes even 8 (eight) of these R-4360 engines were installed. Each one weighed about 2.5 t and drove a large Hamilton standard four-blade propeller (see also history article "Spruce Goose")

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that already in the twenties the first Competitions in distance gliding were carried out? At the first Rhön competition in August 1920, flight distances of approx. 400 m were achieved. This first competition was overshadowed by the fatal crash of the pilot Eugen von Loessl. Exactly 24 years earlier, on August 9, 1896, the glider pioneer Otto Lilienthal also had a fatal accident with his glider. As early as 1922, glider flights of more than an hour in duration were achieved in the upwelling of the slopes. In 1925, distances of 22 km were already achieved. In 1926, Max Kegel involuntarily got caught in a thunderstorm and was carried over 50 km by the updrafts - a world record, but it wasn't until 1928 that people became aware of the usability of the "thermal". Today the gliders no longer consist of wooden frames covered with canvas but of modern glass and carbon fiber materials, the laminar profiles and the design of the machines are optimized with computer support, the use of thermal updrafts has become a matter of course and Klaus Ohlmann flew in November 2000 with the ultra-modern Stemme S-10 glider in South America approx. 2,500 km.

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that from 1941 to 1945 near Tuskegee / Alabama more than 1300 military pilots all black have been trained? They became the Tuskegee Airmen called. 450 black fighter pilots under the command of Col. Benjamin O. Davis Jr. (who later became the first black Air Force General) fought in their P-40, P-39, P-47 and P-51 over North Africa, Sicily and continental Europe . They flew 15,500 missions with the 12th Tactical U.S. Army Air Force and the 15th Strategic Army Air Forces. The German pilots feared and respected the "black bird men". The "white" American bomber crews called the Tuskegee Airmen "The Redtail Angels" because the fighters were painted red on the bow and stern. The Tuskegee Airmen destroyed over 400 enemy aircraft, many rail and truck transports and sank a destroyer of the German Navy. 66 Airmen lost their lives, 32 were captured. They had the mission not to lose any of the bombers to be protected and they fulfilled it. They have received numerous awards for their unique achievements and received respect and admiration, both from the protected bomber crews and from the civilian population.

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that already in 1931 with Swivel vanes was experimented? In March 1931 the "Pterodactyl" of the British aircraft manufacturer Westland flew. With the 4.75 degree adjustment option, shifts in the center of gravity should be compensated. At the end of the Second World War, the Messerschmidt P.1101 was about to be tested in flight, was shipped to the USA as spoils of war, where it served as the basis for the construction of the Bell X-5, the first real swing-wing aircraft. During test flights in June 1951, test pilot Skip Ziegler changed the arrowhead from 20 to 50 degrees. It took many years until the complicated principle of the swivel vanes was fully developed and used for the first time in the General Dynamics F-111. Some very well-known combat aircraft such as the F-14 Tomcat and the European Panavia Tornado use the advantages of swivel wings: low take-off and landing speed and the ability to reach high altitudes with a large wingspan, on the other hand, optimal high-speed flight characteristics in low flight in turbulent air.

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that the first jet airliner that de Havilland "Comet" On the 27th.July 1949 took off for the first flight? That day began a new era in the transportation of passengers over long distances that continues to this day. The "Comet" was piloted on her maiden flight by former fighter pilot ace and test pilot John Cunningham. After almost a year of intensive flight tests and a considerable number of cross-country flight records, the first orders from international airlines were received. On May 2, 1951, a 36-seater "Comet" took off on its first scheduled flight from London to Johannesburg. A little later a "Comet 2" for 44 passengers was built, a "Comet 3" with 78 seats was planned. Until then, the de Havilland "Comet" was the only jet airliner in the world without any competition. The fall followed as quickly as the rise: two planes crashed at the start in Campini near Rome and Karachi, Pakistan. Then, exactly one year after the maiden flight from London to Johannesburg, another disaster struck. The Comet "Yoke Victor" broke in midair. On January 15, 1954, the "Yoke Peter" also broke in the air. A flight ban for the entire Comet fleet followed after the "Yoke Yoke" crashed into the Bay of Naples on April 8, 1954. Material fatigue was found to be the cause of the accident, a new finding at the time. All other aircraft designs benefited from this knowledge - including the "Comet 4", which flew accident-free for many years to come.

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that as early as September 1907 the first manned helicopters raised from the ground? The Bréguet 1 "Gyroplan", a cross-shaped lattice construction made of tubular steel with four jack screws arranged in pairs at each end, was driven by an Antoinette petrol engine with approx. The "Gyroplan" was built by the Bréguet brothers in collaboration with Richet and, manned by one person, rose to a height of 1.5 meters. Also in France, two months later, the bicycle manufacturer Paul Cornu rose from the ground with his aircraft. Cornu's aircraft had a 24 HP Antoinette motor, and the power was transmitted via belts to the two counter-rotating rotors attached to booms. Cornu also rose up to 1.5 m high and for up to 60 seconds in the air - several times even with "passengers".

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that the rocket plane Messerschmitt Me 163B "Comet" often lived up to its name? In 1944/45 this unconventional flying wing was used as a fighter for the defense of the Reich. Driven by a 1600 kp thrust Walther HWK 109-509A-1 liquid rocket motor, the Me 163B reached an altitude of 9,150 m and a top speed of 955 km / h in just 2 1/2 minutes. During the flight duration of approx. 10 minutes, the pilot should then attack Allied bombers with the help of two 30 mm MK 108 cannons and then return to the airfield in gliding flight. The landing took place on a runner, the landing gear was thrown off at take-off. Often, however, the Me 163 hit its landing sled so hard that fuel residues ignited and it exploded in a ball of fire. In this way, more Me 163 were lost than in combat. 350 machines of this type were built before the surrender.

Me 163 in the Air Force Museum Gatow and at the ILA 200 Berlin

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that on July 16, 1948 the first turboprop machine took off for a test flight? It was that "Viscount"