Cherokee were descendants of the ancient Caucasian migration

Over de auteur

Thomas Ertl is Professor of Social and Economic History at the University of Vienna.

Fragment. Herdrukt with toestemming. All right voorbehouden.

Foreword On September 19, 2016, the United Nations met in New York to improve the protection of refugees. The aim of the summit was to implement clear and lasting improvements for refugees with the New York Declaration. It remains to be seen whether this can succeed. The current refugee figures show that such efforts are necessary: ​​According to the UNHCR, more people were on the run in 2016 than ever before. Migration, resettlement and displacement are among the most difficult challenges of our time. The interest in politics, society and science is correspondingly high. While the political discussion is often focused on the present and short-term solutions, science examines the structural and historical dimensions of migration. That is hardly surprising, since there has been voluntary and forced migration across borders in all epochs and regions of mankind. In this anthology, which goes back to a lecture series at the University of Vienna, the authors discuss selected examples of forced migrations before the year 1800. The case studies are intended to represent both the variety of manifestations as well as epoch-making and illustrate the commonalities of forced migration across spaces. I would like to thank my colleagues Markus Mayer and Andreas Moitzi for their support with the printing and Jürgen Hotz from Campus Verlag for the excellent cooperation. Above all, I would like to thank the authors for getting involved in this project and for bringing it to a successful conclusion with their contributions. Vienna, Summer 2017 Introduction: Forced Migration and Resettlement from Babylonian Exile (from 597 BC) to the Trail of Tears (from 1830) Thomas Ertl According to the latest figures from the United Nations Refugee Agency, there were around 60 million people worldwide in 2016 on the run (UNHCR 2016). That is twice as many as twenty years ago and a new absolute negative record. The causes are longstanding conflicts like in Somalia and Afghanistan as well as new dramatic events like the civil war in Syria. Half of all refugees currently come from these three countries alone. Most of the refugees have been displaced within their own countries or are in a neighboring region. This is shown, for example, by the Syrian refugees who are mainly staying in the neighboring countries of Turkey (currently 2.7 million) and Lebanon (currently 700,000). In the European public perception, the dangers on the escape routes and integration in the receiving countries have attracted a lot of attention in the recent past: since the beginning of 2014, more than 10,000 people have drowned in the Mediterranean. The reception and distribution of refugees and migrants in the European Union has triggered a political crisis that is of great concern to the Union as a whole and to the individual member states. Due to these events, flight and displacement are a topical issue. This applies to both political and scientific discourse. In contrast to the political discourse, which is often focused on the present and the immediate future, the scholarly examination of the topic endeavors to provide a more comprehensive interpretation (Kedar 1996; Eltis 2002; Hoerder 2002; Bade 2007; Ness 2013). It quickly becomes clear: Flight and displacement are not a phenomenon of the present, but can be proven in all historical epochs. In addition, flight and displacement are only one facet of migration. From the beginning, human history has been shaped by voluntary and forced mobility across borders. This history of migrations began with the presumed origin of modern man in Africa around 100,000 years ago and its subsequent spread across the entire world (Stringer 2011). Since then, all centuries and epochs have been characterized by voluntary or forced migration of individuals, small groups and large sections of the population. The current refugee numbers are just another high point in this never-ending story of human migration. The causes, forms and extent of migration have always been complex. A wealth of different terms has therefore been introduced into the scientific discussion. Under emigration, for example, a form of mobility is referred to that is made of free choice, is primarily committed to economic motives and is designed for the long term. This form of migration occurred in all epochs and in all regions of the world (for the Middle Ages Borgolte 2014). Usually people migrated from the countryside to the city or from a poorer peripheral location to an economically more successful region. Just by moving in, cities in Europe and on other continents were able to maintain or grow their population. The migration to economically successful regions in Europe led to an economic and demographic conurbation between southern England and northern Italy, which is also called the "blue banana" - due to its banana-like geographical extension and the European color blue. Migration of this kind also exists within a country, for example the Federal Republic of Germany after unification: since 1990, thousands of individuals and entire families have left the East German federal states in order to find training and work in the West. A reverse wave of migration to the periphery took place in the high Middle Ages in the 12th and 13th centuries. At that time, settlers mainly moved from the west of the Holy Roman Empire, that is, from the Rhineland and today's Netherlands, to the eastern fringes of the empire and to Eastern Europe. They had attracted legal and economic privileges from the landlords there. In the home country income opportunities had shrunk due to an increasing population; in the east new opportunities were opening up. This high medieval country development dragged on for several generations and led to the development of additional arable land and the creation of new cities. The history of East Central Europe was shaped by this settlement and its economic, ethnic, linguistic and cultural consequences well into the 20th century (Bartlett 1993). Asia and Africa were also shaped by internal migration. In the early Middle Ages, a long period of migrations came to an end in sub-Saharan Africa. Groups from the Bantu language family and other farming and iron-working peoples had spread at the expense of hunter-gatherer groups. The peoples who spoke Bantu ("human") in particular populated large parts of the African continent and thereby entered into a wide variety of interactions with the sedentary population (Bechhaus-Gerst 2014: pp. 111-112). The result was an ethnic and linguistic diversity that still shapes Africa today. The constant relationships with Arab traders in the Indian Ocean also formed an independent society from the coastal inhabitants of East Africa, which is designated by the Arabic word Swahili for "coastal inhabitants" (Hoerder 2002: pp. 139-162) . One wave of migration that shaped the world in a special way was the European emigration to other continents between 1500 and the First World War (Canny 1994). The Spaniards, the British and the French have successfully settled in America and Australia and have gradually taken possession of those countries - not least because of the introduction of pathogens that have led to a sharp decline in the local population. The Russian émigrés in Siberia, who, like the Western Europeans in Canada, had initially been attracted to the lucrative fur trade, succeeded in a similar way. The early modern emigration to Asia was different: Although the same number of Europeans sailed east and west before 1800, namely around two million each (Ward 2009), the Europeans in Asia left no demographic traces. Strong Asian states and the unhealthy climate for Europeans prevented larger settlement. The climate was also the main reason why Europeans did not settle in Africa in large numbers. European emigration only became a mass phenomenon after 1800: in the 19th and early 20th centuries, between 50 and 55 million people left their European homeland and went overseas (Steidl 2009). The boundary between voluntary emigration and forced mobility has always been fluid (Eltis 2002: p. 5-6; Hoerder 2009: p. 54) and therefore leaves room for different interpretations and views. According to the German Basic Law, politically persecuted people enjoy the right of asylum (Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany Art. 16a). Immigrants looking for career prospects, material security and education for their children appear as second-class admission candidates. The derogatory catchphrase “economic refugee” has been used for these people in the German-speaking area since the 1970s. This denies them the need to flee and accuses them of abuse of the right to asylum. In doing so, however, it is ignored that the motive for fleeing can often not be reduced to a single reason, but that ecological, economic and political motives usually work together. What appears to be "voluntary emigration" from the perspective of the receiving country occurred from the subjective point of view of the migrant due to insurmountable economic and social constraints in the home country. This fluid transition from voluntariness and coercion can already be seen in migrations before 1800 (Ward 2009). For example, Huguenots and Jews were not forced to leave their French or Russian homeland. They could have opted for their old home - albeit by giving up their religious identity (Jürgens 2010). This also applies to mass migrations after 1800. The European migrants who left Europe for America in the 19th and early 20th centuries were not forced to emigrate by a state authority, but were at least partially forced by emigration to their miserable living conditions and prospects to escape in the home. The simultaneous emigration of southern Chinese to Malaysia took place under similar conditions: on the one hand voluntarily, on the other hand driven by living conditions in their homeland that were perceived subjectively as intolerable. The consequence was massive migration, which has led to the fact that the Chinese now make up 25 percent of the total population in Malaysia. There are also large Chinese minorities in other Southeast Asian countries. Huguenots and other emigrants who had to leave their homeland for religious or political reasons went into exile. In historical research, exile is a forced emigration due to religious, political or ethnic persecution. In exile research, the focus is usually on life in exile between adaptation, the formation of a new identity and a return to the lost homeland. In the early modern history of Europe, religious exiles in particular played a prominent role. About 250,000-300,000 French Huguenots left their homeland, mainly after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), and settled in the Netherlands, England and some Calvinist countries in Germany. The major religious waves of migration in early modern Europe include Dutch Calvinists who fled the Spanish Netherlands from 1550, Irish Catholics who left their homeland after the British occupation, and those Protestants from Salzburg who were the Salzburg Archbishop Expelled from the country in 1732 (Schilling 1992). While the exile for these religious refugees began at a certain point in time, the European Jews were, in a sense, always living in exile. Their existence in Europe was constantly in jeopardy. In the course of the late Middle Ages they were finally expelled from France, England and most German cities - often associated with violence and extermination. Like all groups of exiles, their identity in exile relied to a large extent on a return to their lost homeland, in this case lost Israel. While most Christian groups of exiles were successfully assimilating into the new living space in the second and third generations, this was not the case with the Jews. Political refugees, exiles and convicts also went into exile. The most famous exile of the Middle Ages is the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. In 1302, after a change of leadership in Florence, Dante was forced to leave his hometown. In absentia, he was sentenced to a fine and expelled from office. His property was confiscated. In another trial, Dante was sentenced to death by incineration if he returned. Especially in the fragmented Italian urban landscape, the banishment of political opponents was a frequently used instrument of a group newly come to power (Heers / Bec 1990). In Florence, even the Medici family was not immune to this fate and had to spend 1494-1512 in exile (Tewes 2011). In cities north of the Alps, too, city courts used the verdict of exile to remove criminals and political troublemakers from their own community either permanently or for a certain period of time. Not only did convicted poets and criminals go into exile, but princes and aristocrats also had to follow this path in times of need. After his Bohemian adventure in 1620, Elector Friedrich V of the Palatinate was accepted into the Netherlands. Members of the Catholic House of Stuart had to flee to France several times to avoid their Protestant opponents in England. The escape attempt of the French royal family in 1791 ended unhappily, as is well known, but French aristocrats and members of the higher clergy had left the country as early as 1789. Allegedly there were 100,000-150,000 people who were partially able to return after the restoration of the monarchy in 1812. Exile is a form of forced migration. This term is used for different forms of displacement, displacement, deportation, resettlement and flight of individuals or groups. An important motive for the deportation and forced resettlement of people was the acquisition of unfree labor. This applies primarily to the capture, deportation and sale of unfree peasants and slaves. The violence of people over the body of other people, combined with an obligation to work, is a global phenomenon whose origins probably go back to the Stone Age. Skavery and other forms of personal bondage have always been associated with forced migration (Christopher / Pybus / Rediker 2007). In the Middle Ages, slavery and various forms of bondage were widespread. Prisoners of war in particular were forced into slavery. Long-distance merchants and all the warring powers of the time profited from it, with a preference for people of different faiths being enslaved and sold: the Varangians traded slaves in Eastern Europe, the Vikings preyed on human beings in the British Isles, and German kings and princes were "successful" in the Slavic East. Until the 12th century, Christian Saxons raided their Slavic neighbors in order to plunder them and sell them as slaves. The Italian sea trading towns still traded slaves from the Black Sea region and the Balkans in the late Middle Ages. Muslim rulers acquired both white slaves from Europe and black slaves from Africa (N'Diaye 2010). In the 9th century, so many black slaves were farming in southern Iraq that they rebelled against their Muslim masters. The Zanj uprising was unsuccessful and trade with Africans in Muslim countries across the Indian Ocean continued into the 19th century.The military slaves in Muslim empires were a special form of slavery. The Janissaries, an elite group of the Ottoman army, were particularly well known and notorious in Europe. The Janissary Corps, which also provided the sultan's bodyguard, was established in the 14th century. It initially consisted of prisoners of war and slaves, later of Christian boys from subjugated peoples in the Balkans, who were forcibly recruited as part of the "boy harvest" and raised to be loyal Muslims (Hechelhammer 2010). In other Muslim empires, military slaves rose to high administrative and political posts, or even became sultan. This was the case in the Sultanate of Delhi, in which military slaves from Central Asia were able to consolidate Muslim rule in northern India, and in Egypt, which was ruled from 1250 to 1520 by military slaves from the Caucasus known as Mamluks. At the beginning of the 14th century, a Mamluk upper class of around 10,000 people ruled over four to five million Egyptians. Wars and military conquests were another important cause of forced migration in all epochs. The oldest well-known example is the Babylonian exile of the Jews (Donner 1986). After Nebuchadnezzar II took over the kingdom of Judah in 597 BC. A considerable part of the Jewish upper class was resettled to Babylon. The Bible speaks of 4,600 people (Jeremiah 52: 28-30); there are no other sources for estimating the extent of the resettlement. The living conditions of the Jews in exile were presumably little coercive: they could trade and farm, live in their own houses, manage their economic affairs themselves, and carry on their religious traditions. Even careers in the Babylonian civil service were possible. Perhaps this successful assimilation of the Jews is responsible for the fact that Jewish scholars - fearing for the purity of faith and the independence of the people - depicted the "Babylonian captivity" in gloomy colors. Thus it says in Psalm 137: "By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat and wept when we thought of Zion". In 539 BC The Persian king Cyrus II conquered the Babylonian empire and allowed the return of the Jews. Some of the exiles did in fact return to Judea, others stayed in Babylon or migrated east and settled in cities like Samarkand and Bukhara. Babylonian exile became a metaphor for a place or process of servitude in the western world. The Catholic Church called the period when the Pope resided in Avignon (1309-1377) the Babylonian captivity of the Church. Martin Luther also spoke of the Babylonian captivity of the Church, including the abuses of the Catholic Church. In 1970 the song "Rivers of Babylon" by the reggae band "The Melodians" became a worldwide hit. The song quotes Psalm 137 and compares the exile of the Jews with the deportation of African slaves to America. Wars and conquests led to migratory movements and population shifts in all historical epochs and all regions of the world. In the course of Islamic expansion, Arab troops reached the Iberian Peninsula in the west and the Indus River in the east at the beginning of the 8th century. Following the military conquests, Arab soldiers and settlers settled and local rulers and Arab rulers were established. Many of the inhabitants of North Africa adapted to the Arab culture in the following centuries and merged with the people of the conquerors. At the same time, however, the deportation of African slaves to Muslim countries began (N'Diaye 2010). Since the late Middle Ages, Islamic expansion increasingly encompassed the Indian subcontinent. With the Muslim horsemen from Central Asia, Muslim settlers and scholars came to India. In the early modern period, the Islamic Mughal Empire came into being, which ruled large parts of India. The strong presence of Muslims on the Indian subcontinent led to the emergence of the states of Pakistan and later Bangladesh after the independence of India. According to UNHCR estimates, the Partition of India not only cost the lives of several hundred thousand people, it also forced 14 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims to relocate. The division of India thus represents the largest mass migration in history. Nevertheless, Islam has remained the second largest religious denomination in India after Hinduism (approx. 14 percent or 170 million). The European population has known war as a cause of flight and displacement since the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages themselves began with such a migration crisis, which is commonly known as the migration of the peoples. Between the 4th and 6th centuries, mainly Germanic groups settled on the soil of the Roman Empire, first as Federation, then as invaders. It was less about wandering peoples than more heterogeneously composed warriors in search of prey and supplies. The further history of Europe was strongly influenced by these rulers and the empires they founded. The Franks, whose empire in the heart of Europe is sometimes seen as the first European empire and medieval anticipation of the European Union, were particularly successful. The question of whether the Germanic tribes who immigrated from poor countries brought about the downfall of rich Rome or whether the Germanic successes are to be seen more as a result of an already existing crisis is controversial in research. Linked to this is the question of whether Rome's dealings with immigrants can be instructive in solving the current refugee crisis. The establishment of the Franconian Empire as the first permanent medieval empire was also associated with forced migration. The resettlement of the Saxons by Charlemagne is presented by Maximilian Theseberger in a separate article in this volume. In the centuries that followed, there was hardly a decade in which there was not some minor or major military confrontation somewhere in Europe, which as a rule also involved the displacement and resettlement of minor or major groups of people. Count Bretislaw I of Bohemia conquered the town of Giecz in Poland in 1038 and gathered the entire population, including their movable property and animals, in Bohemia. Two generations later they formed an independent community of the "people from Giecz". Similarly, princes acted in regions as distant as southern Italy and Wales. It was always about recruiting workers and taxpayers. (Bartlett 1993: 119). Wars and crises also led to processes of forced migration in the early modern period. During the Thirty Years' War 1618-1648, entire areas of Germany were devastated. Those who did not flee in time either lost their lives or had to leave a ruined and deserted country in order to survive. Displacement and migration also brought about the series of wars that have ravaged large parts of Europe since the outbreak of the French Revolution. After 1800 the state came to the fore as an organizer of displacement and resettlement. In 1830 the American Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. The law created the basis for resettling the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi in what is now the state of Georgia to a less fertile land west of the Mississippi in what is now Oklahoma (Banner 2005). The background to the displacement was a steadily growing demand for land by the white settlers. The procedure against the Indians was legitimized on the one hand as Manifest Destiny, a fateful and inevitable expansion of the "white civilization" to the Pacific, and on the other hand by the claim that the Indians were to be saved from extinction through forced resettlement. The Cherokees and other tribes' legal appeals failed in the United States Supreme Court. In the years that followed, the tribes bowed down, made assignments, and headed west, escorted by American soldiers. The Cherokee also had to leave their homeland. On the Trail of Tears, over a quarter of the Indians died from illness, malnutrition, or exhaustion. For children in particular, the six-month walk, which was over 2,000 kilometers, often turned into a death train. It took many tribal associations over a generation to get used to new living conditions and to establish a functioning political system. It would take over a hundred years, however, for the tribes to recover economically enough to no longer have to rely on the support of the United States on their reservations. The expulsion of the Indians from the southeastern United States from 1830 represents an early example of a state planned and implemented resettlement of a population group. In the 19th century other states also practiced a violent resettlement policy of ethnic or social minorities. After Russia had conquered the Crimea in 1771, Russian settlers settled on the peninsula and displaced the Crimean Tatars from their previous leading position. There were several unsuccessful rebellions. In several waves of emigration, the Crimean Tatars finally left their homeland and settled primarily in the Balkans. In the middle of the 19th century they had become a minority in the Crimea (Uehling 2004). The Circassians suffered a similar fate. When the Russian Empire occupied the North Caucasus in 1864, the Caucasian people of the Circassians were forcibly expelled. Until then, they were the most numerous and politically dominant ethnic group in the North Caucasus (Richmond 2008: pp. 51-80). The majority of Circassians (3-4 million) settled in Middle Eastern and Balkan countries. The vast majority of the people still live in the diaspora today. Only a few Circassians speak their Caucasian language, and relations with their old homeland are often only loose. The violent resettlement policy in the 20th century reached an unprecedented level (Kruke 2006). The establishment of states in the Balkans led to extensive population shifts in south-eastern Europe, which began before the First World War. It reached its first high point during the First World War with the deportation of the Armenians (Suny 2009) and the population exchange between Turkey and Greece after the First World War. At the end of the 20th century the Balkans were shaken again by armed events, destruction and resettlement. What has now been termed ethnic cleansing led to the displacement and resettlement of hundreds of thousands of residents of the former Yugoslavia (Carmichael 2009). The First World War had already led to massive refugee and migrant movements in Central Europe. The events before, during and immediately after the Second World War were even more extensive and dramatic (Ahonen 2008). National Socialist policies had led to forced resettlements even before the war. Jews, Czechs, Germans, Poles as well as Roma and Sinti were affected. Six million Jews were deported and murdered during the war in the Holocaust. Millions of forced laborers, mainly from Eastern Europe, worked in the German war industry. In the Soviet Union, around three million members of ethnic minorities such as Germans and Crimean Tartars were resettled under Stalin. Flight and displacement continued after the Second World War: Germans and Poles, who had to flee from areas in Eastern Europe that had to flee forlorn areas, were primarily affected by the border shifts (Douglas 2012). During the two world wars and as a result of them, 20 million people were displaced or resettled in Europe alone. This means that the 20th century is also a century of displaced people. The dramatic volume of expulsions and the proximity to the present have meant that the subject of flight and displacement has become a central research topic since the end of the 20th century and society in general is of great interest. Numerous detailed studies and summaries have been published. The technical terminology has been made more precise (Brandes 2010). Forced migration as a political and economic instrument already existed before 1800. Some examples have already been pointed out, many more could be cited. The state resettlement policy (sürgün) in the Ottoman Empire, which was in the Byzantine tradition, is particularly well known. With the transfer of parts of the population, the Ottoman sultan pursued several goals: the ethnic presence of Turks should be guaranteed over the entire territory; potential rebellions from subjugated peoples - both Christian and Muslim groups in Anatolia - should be made impossible and the cost of local control of the population reduced; the settlement in the border region should strengthen the border protection; the state should also benefit economically from the resettlement of craftsmen. As a consequence, Turkish colonist villages emerged and Islam spread to the Balkans. The urban centers, above all Constantinople, which was conquered in 1453, were populated by forced migration from different parts of the empire (Schmitt 2014: pp. 116-120). Perhaps less well known, but with traces still visible today, was the early modern resettlement policy in the British Isles. After Ireland was conquered by English troops, the Act of Settlement of 1652 expropriated many Irish Catholics landowners. The result was a wave of Irish emigration to the colonies. Conversely, the British Crown encouraged the immigration of loyal Scots and English to Ireland. The clearings in Scotland served purely economic purposes. During the 18th century in particular, the Scottish Highlands were largely depopulated in order to gain pastureland. The displaced settled on the coasts or emigrated to the colonies.