What is a non-commercial bank

Commercial bank

Commercial banks are those banks that operate universally, that is, conduct all banking business. Their customers include companies, individuals, public authorities and other banks. It is the name for all credit institutions operating in Germany that offer all common banking transactions for private and corporate customers. These so-called universal banks include in particular the private credit banks, the cooperative banks and the savings banks.

The commercial banks are credit institutions organized on the basis of private law in terms of their legal form and universal banks in terms of their range of services. Larger commercial banks are in the vast majority of cases stock corporations, with the shareholding being broadly diversified as well as being held by a few or just one company. If the company that is the sole shareholder of a bank is also a commercial bank, one speaks of a parent bank. The commercial bank, whose shares are held by a parent bank, is accordingly called a subsidiary bank.

A commercial bank can also be organized in other forms of corporation, such as a limited liability company, or in the legal form of a partnership. The only important thing is that it is a legal form of private law ("ius privatum"), excluding the cooperative; only then do we speak of commercial banks, although all other credit institutions naturally do or want to do business as well. The banks organized as partnerships are also called private banks. This classification should not hide the fact that, for example, the big banks are also private banks.

Since they are universal banks, the commercial banks offer their customers a wide variety of banking services. You are of course active in the classic fields of banking, i.e. in the deposit and credit business (deposit business, credit), in the securities business (securities) and in the area of ​​payment transactions anyway. It goes without saying that they also offer the ancillary banking services, such as custody business or asset management.

The role of commercial banks in issuing securities is immense. The issue of securities in the Federal Republic is absolutely dominated by them. Several commercial banks often appear side by side at times and operate the issue together in a so-called consortium (consortium bank). That does not mean that they do not face each other as irreconcilable competitors.

The commercial banks are divided into:
* Big banks
* Regional banks (and other commercial banks)
* Foreign banks
* Private banks

The big banks are internationally operating corporations and, in an international comparison, are among the leading (i.e. also: among the most financially strong) banks in the world. Regional banks limit their universal range of services, as their name suggests, to a certain region - or metropolis - which, however, says nothing about their financial strength; Bankgesellschaft Berlin, for example, was among the ten German credit institutions with the largest balance sheets in 1999.

The foreign banks are branches of foreign banks or their subsidiaries operating in Germany. The leading Dutch bank, ABN AMRO Bank, has branches in Aachen, Berlin, Dortmund, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt / Main, Hamburg, Cologne, Münster and Stuttgart. Finansbank, also from Holland, offers its services from Frankfurt / Main, just as many foreign banks have their German branches in the Main metropolis. To name just a few examples: Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank Ltd Germany (with a branch in Düsseldorf), Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Industrial Bank of Japan, Yasarbank. Other such foreign banks are, for example, the Indonesian Overzeese Bank (Hamburg), the Yapi Kredi Bank (Düsseldorf) and The Sakura Bank Ltd (also Düsseldorf). This is only a selection that could be continued extensively: 93 foreign banks were active in Germany in December 1999.

The private banks are the oldest German banks, and many of these commercial banks have had good-sounding names for generations. That changed when in 1848 the Abraham Schaaffhausen banking house was converted into a stock corporation due to insurmountable liquidity problems. In the period that followed, a number of share-based banks emerged, for example Commerzbank and Deutsche Bank in 1870, which made life difficult for private bankers. When, after the founder crash of 1873, two waves of concentration ran through the banking industry, the positions of the private banks were further weakened. Nevertheless, in December 1999 there were still 45 of these private banks in Germany, although sometimes only the traditional name still exists, but the bank belongs to a large bank group (cash group).

See also bank, banking operations, major banks, regional banks, foreign banks, private banks

Group of -o banks that are significantly involved in the creation of money and are therefore assigned to the monetary financial institutions in contrast to the parametric financial institutions.

This designates all universally active credit institutions. This includes all private banking institutions, public-law credit institutions and credit institutions organized as cooperatives.
See also: banks, savings banks, Volksbanken, Raiffeisenbanken, universal banks

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